spanish-adjectives

The Ultimate Guide to Spanish Adjectives

It doesnโ€™t take long to realize that Spanish adjectives follow different rules than in English, does it? 

They come in all sorts of โ€œwrongโ€ places.

They change their form.

They even change their number.

It is so easy to get discouraged and confused. If adjectives werenโ€™t so useful, many of us would probably ignore and never use them.

Unfortunately, you canโ€™t avoid using adjectives – they make the language more colorful and descriptive; they allow you to better explain your ideas, choices, and needs.

Time for an attitude change, then! Letโ€™s conquer Spanish adjectives together, shall we?

Adjectives in Spanish – the Absolute Grammar Essentials

  • adjectives are words that describe or clarify nouns
  • they may contain information about size, color, texture, age, shape, etc.
  • in Spanish, their gender depends on the noun they accompany
  • for some adjectives, the masculine and feminine forms are the same
  • unlike in English, Spanish adjectives have singular and plural form

I realize such a compact summary is probably not enough to clarify all your doubts and questions, which is why we are going to analyze Spanish adjectives in more detail.

What are adjectives and how to use them in Spanish?

For those of you who are not entirely familiar with grammar concepts, adjectives are a group of words that modify / describe nouns (that is: objects, people, places, animals, concepts, etc.)

Letโ€™s take a simple noun: a house. 

In Spanish, that would translate as una casa

Now, ask yourself what a house can be or look like.

There are so many possibilities, arenโ€™t there?

A big house,
a modern house,ย 
an expensive house,ย 
cozy house,ย 
an old house, etc.ย 

All the words Iโ€™ve marked in cursive are nothing else than ADJECTIVES. 

English is packed with different types of adjectives, but today we will be dealing only with one of them, which is descriptive adjectives. They can contain information about:

  1. appearance (pretty, ugly, handsome, attractive, etc.)
  2. size (small, big, tiny, enormous, etc.)
  3. shape (round, oval, square, etc.)
  4. color (white, blue, yellow, green, etc.)
  5. texture (soft, smooth, rough, etc.)
  6. temperature (hot, cold, chilly, warm, etc.)
  7. personality (funny, friendly, shy, outgoing, etc.)
  8. other qualities (dangerous, crowded, violent, etc.)

All of these descriptive adjectives have, of course, their Spanish equivalents. 

How about if we see a few examples weโ€™ll later use as our base?

30 common adjectives in Spanish and their 30 antonyms:

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ grande – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง big
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ bonito – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง pretty
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ rico – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง rich
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ alto – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง high
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ caliente – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง hot
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ barato – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง cheap
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ rรกpido – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง fast
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ seguro -๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง safe, secure
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ liviano – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง light
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ joven – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง young
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ fรกcil – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง easy
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ listo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง smart
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ interesante – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง interesting
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ delgado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง thin, slim
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ simple– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง simple
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ largo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง long
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ claro – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง light, clear
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ mojado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง wet
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ suave – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง smooth
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ blando – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง soft
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ ancho – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง wide, broad
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ energรฉtico – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง energetic
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ delicioso- ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง delicious
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ limpio – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง clean
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cortรฉs – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง polite
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ fuerte– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง strong
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ valiente – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง brave
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ alegre – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง happy
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ abierto –ย ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง open
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ lleno – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งfull
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ pequeรฑo– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง small
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ feo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง ugly
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ pobre – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง poor
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ bajo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง low
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ frio – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง cold
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ caro – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง expensive
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ lento – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง slow
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ peligroso – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง dangerous
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ pesado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง heavy
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ viejo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง old
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ difรญcil– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง difficult
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ tonto – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง silly, stupid
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ aburrido – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง boring
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ gordo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง fat
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ complicado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง complicated
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ corto – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง short
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ oscuro – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง dark
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ seco – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง dry
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ รกspero – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง rough
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ duro – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง hard
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ estrecho – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง narrow
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cansado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง tired
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ asqueroso – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง disgusting
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ sucio – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง dirty
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ maleducado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง rude
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ dรฉbil – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง weak
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cobarde – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง coward
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ triste – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง sad
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cerrado – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง close
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ vacรญo – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง empty

For more examples of adjectives, check out my posts on personality traits, feelings and moods,ย  shopping, and restaurants in Spanish.ย 

Spanish adjectives go AFTER the noun. 

That is the first and most important rule about Spanish adjectives, which makes it quite different from English and causes quite a few mistakes among native English speakers.

Letโ€™s have a look:

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Esta es una casa grande.
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง This is a big house.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Vivo en un edificio alto.ย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง I live in a tall building.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Tengo un perro viejo.ย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง I have an old dog.ย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Necesito un carro nuevo.ย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง I need a new car.ย 

See? In the Spanish version, you need to mention the noun first and then describe it with an adjective of your choice. 

Letโ€™s call it our Rule of Thumb #1. 

Genders in Spanish grammar

Another important difference between English and Spanish has to do with word gender.

Youโ€™re probably asking yourself, โ€œWhat? How can words have a genderโ€?

In English, you canโ€™t say whether a lamp is masculine or feminine, or a car, or a table.

The articles that accompany nouns (A / AN or THE) donโ€™t convey any such information. 

In Spanish, however, nouns DO have genders, and the articles tell you if a specific word is considered feminine or masculine.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un perro – the article UN indicates that the noun is masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a dog

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una casa – the article UNA indicates that the noun is feminine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a house

When we talk about a specific dog or a particular house, the indefinite articles UN and UNA are replaced with EL and LA.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ el perro – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง the dog
๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ la casa – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง the houseย 

Now, letโ€™s suppose that you want to describe both the dog and the house with adjectives.

The Rule of Thumb # 2 says: adjust the adjectiveโ€™s form according to the gender of the noun it describes. 

Oh, boy!

Sorry if I am getting too scholarly. I am a teacher, after all. 

I promise I will do my best to explain it in an easy way.

How to change the gender of Spanish adjectives from masculine to feminine?

The way you find adjectives in a dictionary or an online translator is in their masculine form. The adjectives from the list above are all masculine as well. 

How to change them to feminine?

Well, it depends on how they end:

Adjectives ending in an โ€œ-O.โ€

This group of adjectives replaces the vowel O with A in the feminine form.

So:

frรญo – frรญa
bonito – bonita
pequeรฑo – pequeรฑa
lento – lenta
peligroso – peligrosa

What would it look like in combination with nouns?

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un / el plato frรญo ย – the word โ€œplatoโ€ is masculine, and so is the adjectiveย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a / the cold dish

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una / la niรฑa pequeรฑa – the word โ€œniรฑaโ€ is feminine, and so it the adjective
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a / the little girl

Would you like to see some more examples?

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ โ€œEl Patito Feoโ€ es mi cuento favorito. – both โ€œpatitoโ€ and โ€œcuentoโ€ are masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง โ€œThe Ugly Duckingโ€ is my favorite story.ย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ No quiero vivir en una calle peligrosa. – โ€œcalleโ€ is feminine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง I donโ€™t want to live in a dangerous street.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Necesitamos cortar el รกrbol alto. – โ€œรกrbolโ€ is masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง We need to cut down the tall tree.ย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ ยฟPor quรฉ compraste una motocicleta vieja? – โ€œmotocicletaโ€ is feminine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Why did you buy an old motorcycle?

Adjectives ending in an โ€œ-Eโ€ or โ€œ-Aโ€

This group of adjectives is much easier as it does not require you to change anything, no matter if you describe a masculine or a feminine noun.

Check out the phrases below:

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un paรญs grande ย – โ€œpaรญsโ€ is masculine in Spanish
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a big country

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una ciudad grande – โ€œciudadโ€ is feminine in Spanish
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a big city

The same thing happens with an adjective โ€œoptimistaโ€ – optimistic.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un plan optimista ย – โ€œplanโ€ is masculine in Spanish
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง an optimistic plan

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una canciรณn optimista– โ€œcanciรณnโ€ is feminine in Spanish
un optimistic song

See? No change! Adjectives like โ€œgrandeโ€ and โ€œoptimistaโ€ are much friendlier!

  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ alegre – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง happy
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ amable – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง kind
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ fuerte – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง strong
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ rentable– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง profitable
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ responsable – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง responsible
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ importante -๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง important
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ brillante – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งbrilliant
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ consciente – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง conscious
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ prudente – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง careful
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cobarde – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง coward
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ inteligente – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง intelligent
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ emocionante – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง exciting
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ interesante– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง interesting
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ realista – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง realistic
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ futurista – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง futuristic
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ pacifista – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง pacifist
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ pesimista – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง pessimistic
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ perfeccionista – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง perfectionist

Adjectives ending in a consonant

The third group of Spanish adjectives includes those whose last letter is a consonant. Most of them (there are exceptions, unfortunately) keep the same form no matter the gender of the described noun. 

If you scroll back to our list, youโ€™ll find one adjective belonging to this category: jovenyoung

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una pareja joven – โ€œparejaโ€ is a feminine noun in Spanish
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a young coupleย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un hombre joven – โ€œhombreโ€ is, of course, masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a young man

Would you like to learn more adjectives that finish in a consonant? Here are some: 

  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ leรกl– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง loyal
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ feliz– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง happy
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ dรฉbil– ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง weak
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ fรกcil – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง easy
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ azul- ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง blue
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ fiel – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง faithful, loyal
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ cortรฉs – ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง polite

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ El perro de mi vecino es muy fiel. – โ€œperroโ€ is masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง My neighborโ€™s dog is very loyal.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ La trabajadora mรกs fiel que hemos tenido es Margarita. – โ€œtrabajadoraโ€ is feminine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Margarita is the most loyal worker weโ€™ve had.ย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ La tarea que me diste no es fรกcil. – โ€œtareaโ€ is feminine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง The task you gave me is not easy.ย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ El trabajo de Pedro es muy fรกcil.ย  – โ€œtrabajoโ€ is masculine
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Pedroโ€™s job is not easy.ย 

For those of you who are slightly more advanced in Spanish, you might stumble upon exceptions to this rule. Adjectives ending in โ€œ-ร“N,โ€ โ€œOR,โ€ or โ€œ-ร‰Sโ€ lose the accent in feminine form and add the letter โ€œAโ€ at the end:

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ gruรฑรณn – gruรฑonaย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง grumpy

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ hablador – habladoraย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง chatty

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ francรฉs – francesaย 
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง French

Luckily, they are not too many.

Spanish adjectives in the plural form

Congratulations! Youโ€™ve just gotten through one major grammar topic. 

Time for the next one! Adjectives in Spanish and their number. 

As you know, English adjectives donโ€™t pluralize. They always keep the same, no matter if the noun they describe is used in the singular or plural form. Like in the sentences below:

I want to eat a red apple. – the noun โ€œappleโ€ is in singular form (only one)

He doesnโ€™t like red apples. – the noun โ€œapplesโ€ is in plural form (multiple apples)

See? You can change the noun from singular to plural, yet the English adjective remains unchanged.

If you are learning Spanish, however, you may forget this rule.

Instead, learn our Rule of Thumb # 3: Spanish adjectives do pluralize.

Making the plural form by adding an โ€œS.โ€

The good news is, in most cases, they make their plural form by simply adding the letter โ€œSโ€ at the end. This rule applies to adjectives ending in a vowel  (โ€œO,โ€ โ€œEโ€ or โ€œAโ€)

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un chico guapo – muchos chicos guapos
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a handsome guy – many handsome guys

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un dรญa hermoso – muchos dรญas hermosos
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a beautiful day – many beautiful days

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un postre delicioso- muchos postres deliciosos
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a delicious dessert – many delicious dessertsย 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un hombre amable – muchos hombres amables
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a nice man – many nice men

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un plan realista – muchos planes realistas
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a realistic plan – many realistic plansย 

Iโ€™m sure youยดll agree it is not such a big deal having to remember about the additional โ€œS.โ€ You need to pluralize the noun anyway, right?

Plural form and the adjective gender

If you review the examples of the plural form above, youโ€™ll realize that all the nouns I used are masculine. 

What happens if the noun you want to describe is feminine?

In such a case, your job is double: you have to adjust the gender of the adjective you use AND its number. 

Have a look:

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una mujer rubia – muchas mujeres rubias
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a blond woman – many blond women

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una maรฑana tranquila – muchas maรฑanas tranquilas
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a beautiful day – many beautiful days

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una calle peligrosa– muchas calles peligrosas
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a dangerous street – many dangerous streets

Of course, for those adjectives whose masculine and feminine form is the same, you only need to worry about the number. 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una mujer amable – muchas mujeres amables
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a nice woman- many nice women

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una tarea realista – muchas tareas realistas
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a realistic task- many realistic tasks

How to pluralize adjectives ending in a consonant

The last group of adjectives we need to analyze are those that end in a consonant.

Do you remember some of them?

Thatโ€™s right: leรกl, cortรฉs, azul, fรกcil, feliz, etc.

Can you recall whether or not they changed their gender? No, they didnโ€™t

But they do change their number. 

However, in Spanish, you canโ€™t simply โ€œglueโ€ the โ€œSโ€ to another consonant. 

โŒ los ejercicios fรกcils
โŒ los ojos azulsย 

Instead, you need to separate the 2 consonants with the vowel โ€œEโ€. So:

โœ”๏ธ los ejercicios fรกciles
โœ”๏ธ los ojos azules

That is not the only thing youโ€™ll need to remember, though. 

There are two more details regarding the plural form of the adjectives ending in a consonant:

  1. When the last consonant of the adjective is โ€œZ,โ€ it needs to be replaced with โ€œCโ€ and then added โ€œES.โ€ 

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un final feliz – muchos finales felices
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a happy end – many happy ends

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un lobo feroz – muchos lobos feroces
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a ferocious wolf – many ferocious wolves

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una mujer eficaz – muchas mujeres eficaces
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง an efficient woman – many efficient women

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una persona voraz – muchas personas voraces
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a voracious person – many voracious people

  1. The adjectives that stress the last syllable in the singular form lose the accent mark in the plural form. This rule applies to adjectives that have at least two syllables.

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un hombre leรกl – muchos hombres leales
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a loyal man – many loyal men

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ una persona cortรฉs – muchas personas corteses
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a polite person – many polite people

๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ un gato gruรฑรณn – muchos gatos gruรฑones
๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง a grumpy cat- many grumpy cats

***

Thatโ€™s all about adjectives, guys!

Please remember our 3 Rules of Thumb:

#1 Spanish adjectives go after the noun
#2 Spanish adjectives have genders
#3 Spanish adjectives can change the number from singular to plural

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Joanna Lupa

Joanna Lupa

Polish by birth, Chilean by the turns of life. Has spent 20 years in that beautiful South American country working as a language teacher and translator. Has taught Spanish and English to students of all proficiency levels. Passionate about languages, books, and traveling. A mother of 2 trilingual teenagers.

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